A Selection of IMC Quotes (1990-1997)

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Tom Duncan and Sandra Moriarty, Driving Brand Value: Using Integrated Marketing to Manage Profitable Stakeholder Relationships, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997)

"Integrated marketing is based on the fact that everything a company does, and sometimes what it doesn't do, sends a message. It recognizes and responds to the fact that increasingly everyone in the organization has the potential to "touch" the customer. " (p. x)

As companies have gotten bigger and more departmentalized and thier marketing communication agencies have gotten more specialized and more expert in what they do, customers and other stakeholders have increasingly received mixed messages about brands and companies and felt increasingly disenfranchised. Over the last decade companies and agencies thought they could end all these mixed messages and build better relationships by merely making sure their marketing communications had "one voice, one look." Unfortunately, building long-term profitable brand relationships requires much more." (p. xi)

The difference between IMC and IM is like the difference between cosmetics and character building. Cosmetics can make most people look better and more attractive, however, if their behavior and character are not consistent and sound, those who have been attract4ed will soon end the relationships. In other words, integrating the marketing communications is futile if contrary, more powerful messages are being sent by other actions of a company. (p. xiii)

Ronald W. Allen, chairman, president and CEO of Delta Airlines, on announcing that Saatchi & Saatchi had been chosen its new agency of record: "Delta is entering the most dynamic time in the history of the company, and we require a strong agency partner as we move forward with our global strategy...Saatchi & Saatchi's approach to integrated global business communications will be instrumental as Delta becomes the worldwide airline of choice." Delta Air Lines News Release, Atlanta GA, March 13, 1997

John Fitzgerald, former vice chairman of McCann Erickson and now head of Cordiant, "the reality of business today is that all clients are doing integration; it's a fundamental part of their business to have integrated marketing programs, or at least multidimensional marketing programs . . . Every agency has observed this trend and is well aware of it. The truth is, however, very few agencies of any size are truly an integrated marketing communication company, yet we're all trying to claim that turf."

Guy Geertz, managing partner at Moors Bloomsbury in Brussels, tells his agency managers, "You must take responsibility for the brand, not just the campaign." - personal interview by Tom Duncan, 1996

Martin Sorrell, CEO of WPP, said western-based advertising agencies were extremely conservative with old-fashioned management structures that were unflexible and slow to respond to client demands. If agencies wanted to keep their clients in this new age of marketing, he said they will have to do "strategic thinking" rather than just great creative.

Speech to the IAA World Congress of Advertising, Seoul, South Korea, 1996

IMC is indeed enjoying a growth in awareness, particularly among larger companies: More than half (54 percent) of the 179 polled say their companies are implementing some form of IMC, and 75 percent of large companies surveyed (those with 300 or more employees) are doing so.

However, "nearly three fourths of the companies surveyed report using a database to better target their customers-an essential part of implementing IMC-but only 30 percent say they are doing extensive profiling and segmenting of customer buying habits using a database. This suggests that many companies have not yet reached a full implementation of IMC." John F. Yarbrough, "Putting the pieces together," Sales & Marketing Mangement, September, 1996
Tom Belle, executive vice president of Gage Marketing Communications in Minneapolis: "Moving to integrated marketing isn't like, 'Should I buy this new pair of shoes or not?'---everything from initial idea to execution has to be integrated....Strategy comes first and last." John F. Yarbrough, "Putting the pieces together," Sales & Marketing Mangement, September, 1996

Lindell, P. Griffith, "Lining up Your Marketing Ducks; Integrated Marketing Communications,"Marketing Computers, October, 1996 At its most basic level, IMC means all your company's key product and corporate messages, positioning and visual images and identity are coordinated across all marcom venues. It means your PR materials say the same thing as your DM campaign; your advertising has the same feel as your home page. This builds a strong brand identity in the marketplace by consistently reinforcing all your visual images and messages, and it saves you money. Through IMC, you can leverage the design costs of developing an ad or brochure by repeating key images and icons in all your communications pieces. By repeating images and messages, you ensure continuity in your marcom campaign.....As an attitude, integration involves more than the marcom department and the ad agency. IMC begins at the product management level. .... By beginning at the fundamental level of understanding the customer's dilemma, you can integrate all the marketing communications elements into a unified, well-orchestrated campaign by developing a relevant umbrella theme that can accommodate all the various marketing communications tactics.

Companies employing effective communications strategies, like orchestras, speak with one voice. Just as orchestras have particular sections that play music in ways that only they can express, so too do communicating companies strategically use marketing communications. You don't ask public relations to do the job of direct mail. Nor do you ask your personal sales staff to play the role of advertising. Each aspect of communications has a role that fits together to make a consonant whole. The score (written by the company) is interpreted by the maestro (the agency), who directs the orchestra (the functional communications tools). Consistent communication of key product and corporate messages, combined with visual continuity in art design and direction, are critical factors in generating market awareness and building a strong brand image.

P. Griffith Lindell is executive vice president and a principal at DRB Partners, a strategic marketing firm in San Jose, Calif. He can be reached at griff@drbmar.com.

Janet Smith, co-author of Customer Bonding: Pathway to Lasting Customer Loyalty:

"Ultimately, IMC may prove to be a first step in an enterprise's transformation into a customer-focused, information-driven business. The smartest companies quickly transcend its use as a selling tool and begin the internal integration needed to become information-age marketers. And tomorrow's leaders may well move on from there as they pursue an ever closer relationship with the ultimate information integrator-the customer."

Janet Smith, "Integrated Marketing," Marketing Tools, November/December, 1995, p. 63-67.

Paul Root, president of the Marketing Sciences Institute in Cambridge:

"Companies are implementing IMC, but want to know how to evaluate it, how much to commit to their overall communications budget, and how to justify these decisions."

Janet Smith, "Integrated Marketing," Marketing Tools, November/December, 1995, p. 63-67.

Joe Plummer, who has been a key strategist for Leo Burnett, Young & Rubicam, DMB&B, and now vice-chairman of Audit & Surveys: "As advertising agencies we have always been sitting down with the company at the brand manager level and selling a single product. But I believe there is an opportunity for us to become more like management consultants, to sit down with the chief executive and help him solve his problem, help him build the equity of the company and its brands with all his stakeholders. That's a whole new level. We're not ad guys any more, we're strategic planners."

"Reinventing Advertising," Reputation Management, March/April 1995, p. 46.

Thomas Eppes, president of Charlotte, N.C. based Price/McNabb:

"I think the change is going to be so dramatic that in the future there won't be any such thing as an advertising agency. . . We have begun to refer to ourselves as a communications company, and that might change because we are getting involved with our clients' business in ways that go beyond communications."

"Reinventing Advertising," Reputation Management, (March/April, 1995): 42.

Steve Davis, formerly general manager of J. Walter Thompson: "The better we are at understanding and responding to the consumer's decision points, the more it throws us into integrated communications."

Personal interview by Tom Duncan, January, 1995, in Chicago

Neil Brown, Tucker marketing director, said, "An integrated marketing approach makes even more sense for the business marketer, since the lifetime value of a customer relatioship is typically worth a great deal more than a consumer relationship, perhaps millions in revenue.

Kim Cleland, "Few Wed Marketing, Communciations, " Advertising Age February 27, 1995, p. 10.

"The dirty little secret at most advertising agencies is how much the brandmeisters fear and loathe their counterparts in direct marketing shops--and how much direct execs despise the boys in the brand. "

Michael Schrage, "The Interactive Tussle Between Direct and General Agencies Must Be Resolved," Adweek, July 24, 1995, p. 26.

Bill Cleary, co-founder of CKS:

"Agencies that only want to do traditional advertising in the 1990s remind me of the railroad companies when the automobile came on the scene.....So many clients today have flat organizations and short product lifetimes. And they don't have the infrastructure to work with 15 different agencies for their various needs. They want one point of contact....Often traditional advertising is less than a half of a company's marketing program....Clients these days need agencies that can [take]creative from the ads and use it in presentations and packaging."

Joan Voight, "The Technician as Prophet," Adweek, November 12, 1995, p. 16.

Cheri McKenzie, VP-Advertising, Seiko Corp of America, in praise of the integrated efforts of her agency, The Martin Agency.

"All this stems from the way they look at our business. They're not always seeking an advertising solution. Instead, they look at what is the right marketing communication solution, at strategic solutions to our needs.... Their depth of understanding stretches across all departments. Our account team, creative team, media team, PR team--they all work together; they're all integrally involved in our strategic planning. So the solutions come from a comprehensive view of our business.

"A Knowledge of Our Business," Advertising Age, September 25, 1995, p. M6-10.

"We found that far too many companies are mismanaging their greatest assets--their brands--by not taking a holistic approach to brand equity. Three specific areas: Meaning and monitoring (defining and measuring), management for the present, mapping for the future."

Scott Davis and Darrell Douglass, "Holistic Approach to Brand Equity Management," Marketing News 29:2, January 16, 1995, p. 4-5.

George Burnett, general manager of marketing comunications for AT&T Corp.'s consumer Communications Services unit:

"There are a lot of messages going out in this industry, there's a lot of competition; simply the fact that a consumer will see not only the same message content but message vehicels from one part of communictions to another...makes it easier for them. That is one of the goals of integrated communications, because in this complicated world, adding complication on top of the competitiveness is really not in our customers' interest.

Gary Levin, "AT&T Exec: Customer Access Goal of Integration," Advertising Age October 10, 1994, p. S1-S5.

George Burnett, general manager of marketing comunications for AT&T Corp.'s consumer Communications Services unit :

"Now when we talk to an agency about a project, we talk to them about how their answer to that brief will affect other marketing vehicles. And so they have to think more holistically when they think of a creative assignment."

Gary Levin, "AT&T Exec: Customer Access Goal of Integration," Advertising Age (October 10, 1994): S1-S5.

*Bill Murphy, president of Meredith Direct:

"I don't get what the 'mystery' of integration is all about. To me it's the most basic and straightforward approach you could ever take. It's a very logical thing. Somehow, somewhere in the 60s and 70s everything got separated. Now, someone has to bring it back together."

Personal Interview with Tom Duncan, 1994, New York City

Mitch Engels, Managing Director of FCB in Chicago: "We tried the hard way, like everyone else back in the 80s, to jam all these other services down the throats of our clients-Impact [sales promotion], Direct, Medical, Hispanic, PR-we had them all. When we did occasionally get a taker we then proceeded to piss all over our shoes because we really weren't one agency, we were just one agency that owned a lot of different services. Then the light finally went on and we realized we couldn't just serve it up on our terms. We realized we had to serve it up on their terms, what they needed. When we started looking at it from their standpoint rather than the typical agency greedy standpoint, we started making headway."

FCB's Mitch Engels: "Learning has accelerated in the last several years. Our people recognize that if they don't have a working knowledge of sales promotion, database marketing, and PR, it's going to be a deficiency in their ability to help their clients. We all have to be broader generalists."

- personal interview by Tom Duncan, 1994

Steve Davis, [former] general manager of JWT's Chicago office, has found that the people rising the fastest are the ones who have broadened themselves:

"The new heroes of our culture are really the multi-talented people who can operate in the different specters-client service, media, creative-of our business rather than being the specialists who have departmentalized. I have creative people right now performing traditional functions of account management such as anticipating needs, building client relationships, talking to clients."

Personal interview by Tom Duncan, January, 1994, Chicago.

Tom Burke, Saatchi & Saatchi in NYC:

"A few years ago getting our people to pay attention to non-advertising services was like pulling teeth. Now there is a sense that advertising is changing, the clients want to approach things differently, they want new ideas, and account people are seeking out things to bring to their clients before being asked. This is very encouraging. The calls are coming from upper management as well as junior people."

Personal Interview with Tom Duncan, January 1994

IMC is the most cost-effective means for achieving marketing goals, particularly for smaller companies, because it carefully evaluates each component of the marketing mix. Ideally, this results in a unified campaign and assures all messages are in sync....Every organization can benefit from IMC, particularly small businesses that can't afford to gamble all their marketing dollars on a single ad campaign. IMC works because it combines the strengths of each component of the marketing mix

Jeffrey E. Barnhart, "Small Firms Look to Integrated Marketing," Sales and Marketing Strategies & News (July/August, 1994): 13, 15.

GM's chief of marketing, Phil Guarscio, is pushing its agencies to become "General Contractors" who will manage GM brands while turning to external boutiques and other specialists to help execute creative and below-the-line effort.

One agency president observed, "GM is saying to agencies, "I hold you responsible for the brand'. What that means is we have to bring GM the full palate. Any [agency] worth its salt should know that this means we have to go beyond doing ads."

Guarscio said that Buick and its agency, McCann-ERickson, Troy, MI, are undertakeing an initiative to "integrate" marketing activities. He has also stated that GM was devloping a structure with one of its major agencies wherein the focus of the shop will be "ideation and managing as opposed to doing."

Michael McCarthy, "GM to Redefine Agency Roles, Fees," Brandweek , October 17, 1994, p. 3.

A survey of top managers of communication, public affiars and public relations at 105 major U.S.public companies conducted by PR expert MItchel Kozikowski, Flemengton, NJ found that 90% agreed that "pubic relations professionals should take the lead in integrating PR with other communication disciplines. 87% felt PR professionals need to do "systems thinking," considering the interrelationship of communication and other business functions.

"Management Wants Integrated Communication and Impact Measurement," IABC Communication World (November 1994): 32.

John Bennett, senior VP for international marketing communications at Visa International: "As a worldwide Olympic Games sponsor since 1986, we have successfully integrated the Olympics into many areas of our marketing campaigns."

John Bennett, "Shopping For Sponsorships? Integration is Paramount," Brandweek (February 14, 1994): 18.

Les Margulis, international media director at BBDO New York:

"We put these packages together to help keep the clients from going outside. Having a turnkey, prepackaged promotion is the secret. In effect, the agency is dealing with one main supplier who has in fact put many other suppliers together to form this turnkey operation. The client will never hear about the lower level of suppliers, just the main one."

Personal inteview by Tom Duncan, 1993, New York

Nicolas Hayek, CEO of Swatch, "Everything we do, and the way we do everything, sends a message."

William Taylor, "Message and Muscle: An Interview with Swatch Titan Nicolas Hayek," Harvard Business Review. March-April 1993, p. 103.

"Put all of the marketing strategists--client and supplier--together in a room and challenge them to come up with a cohesive integrated solution to a business problem--one tha not only builds the brand but also builds short-term profits. Maybe it's the guy in the point-of-purchase chair who contributes the idea that will make the marketing plan more effective. The bright thinkers who are aware of the big picture can generate great ideas, regardless of what facet of the industry they represent.

"Speaking With One Voice," Promo, March 1993, p. 38, 71.

According to an Advertising Age editorial:

"It's no longer enough to own companies offering advertising, direct response, sales promotion, event sponsorship and/or public relations. Tomorrow's agency must combine all those disciplines not merely under a single corporate roof but into a single marketing strategy tailored to an individual client. The program--often using a client's database--then must be implemented by a small team of agency execs working together hand-in-glove."

"The New Agency," Advertising Age, (February 2, 1993): p. ???.

Maureen McGuire, IBM's PC communications manager for Europe, the Middle East, and Africa gave agencies four elements that should be included in their new busines pitch to IBM:

A complete planning-to-creative-to-execution procedural layout of how an agency's proposed communications program would unfold] An analysis defining IBM's marketplace and how an integrated communications campaign would be applied to it and affect it A similar case study of one of the agency's clients A credentials presentation and introduction of key agency personnel who would work on the account Bruce Crumley and Laurel Wentz, "Euro Shops Puzzle on How to Become IBM's 'Partner'," Advertising Age, October 11, 1993, p. 4

"If you thought positioning was tough to deliver, integrated marketing demands that you be fluent in a dozen languages." Richard Allen, Tip-Offs," Info, October 1993, p. 10-12.

Terry Ennis, head of a DuPont group implementing a horizontal organization: "Our goal is to get everyone focused on the business as a system in which the functions are seamless....Every time you have an organizational boundary, you get the potential for a disconnect. The bigger the organization, the bigger the functions, and the more disconnects you get." John A. Byrne, "The Horizontal Corporation," Business Week, December 20, 1993, p. 79

Richard Nathan, president of POPAI: the trade association is going to create a formal council made up of advertisers who are members of our board and other who are active in our association. The "partnership" idea is already being professed individually by companies to their clients. How far it's getting is a function of how effective the dialogue is on a company-by-company basis. That's where POPAI hopes to step in with a formal structure that could get the attention of the entire marketing industry. "Speaking With One Voice," Promo, (March 1993): 38, 71.

Jeff McElnea, president of sales promotion agency Einson Freeman Inc., Paramus, N.J. : "We're all scrambling a lot more as we cross the lines of our traditional disciplines...,We're scrambling to cross-train ourselves into all of the communications disciplines. That's not just promotion agencies; it's certain adertising agencies, PR agencies and so forth."Cara Chang Mutert, "Marketers dissect the IMC Puzzle," Sales and marketing Strategies & News September/October, 1993, p. 1, 4.

Chris Sutherland, [former] executive director of the Promotion Marketing Association of America aabout IMC: "It has revolutionzed back to the way it was 20 or 30 years ago, or even longer. In the early days, it was pretty common for advertising agencies to do a number of different things, including what's now know as promotion market and point-of-purchase." Cara Chang Mutert, "Marketers dissect the IMC Puzzle," Sales and marketing Strategies & News (September/October, 1993): 1, 4.

In November, 1993 a new CEO, Christina Gold, was appointed to turn around the ailing Avon. She reinstated giving birthday presents, anniversary plates, and annual pins to the sales representatives, and morale improved immediately. Her number one priority, she said, was to re-integrate the company and the sales representatives--to rebuild Avon's relationship with its sales representatives as well as with its former customer base. Suein L. Hwang, "Updating Avon Means Respecting History Without Repeating It," The Wall Street Journal, April 4, 1993, p. A4.

Daniel D. Sherr, ADVO Inc.: This creates the same impresssion from every experience the customer has iwth the product. Product, packaging, customer service, as well as advertising and promoiton, ust be based on the same consumer messages t the same target audience. "The Right Terms, Direct, November 1993, p. 32-36.

A sweeping program of integrated marketing at NEC Technologies has the company coordinating advertising, logo and product design, packaging and point-of-purchase materials. Merging all of the communicatino elements together in a uniform campaign in which NEC is spending $200 million to craft a new image. "Speaking With One Voice," Promo, March 1993, p. 38, 71

Corky Hall, executive vice president, Gage Marketing Group, Minneapolis says IMC is "going from the agency side much faster than we had anticipated--and from the client standpoint, much slower than they would like, says . In other words, clients are eager to try an integrated approach, but agencies don't quite have a handle on it." Cara Chang Mutert, "Marketers dissect the IMC Puzzle," Sales and marketing Strategies & News (September/October, 1993): 1, 4.

Jeff McElnea, president of sales promotion agency Einson Freeman Inc., Paramus, N.J.: "Integration is not just saying the same thing through different media in the same way. It's a process, not a product. It's a whole mindset.... IMC is a way of working in an interdisciplinary fashion to develop a strategy that makes use of the best of all the disicplines." Cara Chang Mutert, "Marketers dissect the IMC Puzzle," Sales and marketing Strategies & News, September/October, 1993, p. 1, 4.

POPAI chairman Richard Nathan interview: "One company we worked with put together a council that met quarterly. There was a level of understanding in the room that we were partners. Anyone who was too self-serving would not be invited to the next meeting." "Speaking With One Voice," Promo, March 1993, p. 38, 71.

Leslie Winthrop, who helps clients find agencies, says there has been an increase in the number of clients looking for agencies who understand integration and can help clients talk with a consistent voice to the trade, their customers, and other important stakeholders. Faye Rice, "A Cure for What Ails Advertising?" Fortune, (December 16, 1991): 122.

Regis McKenna, author of Relationship Marketing: The marketer must be an integrator, both internall-synthesizing technological capability with market needs-and externally, bringing the customer into the company as a participant in the development and adaption of goods and services." Relationship Marketing, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1991, p. 4-5.

Former Y&R president, Peter Georgescu, Y&R's Whole Egg project focused on cross-selling services which benefited the agency rather than on "strategic planning" which focused on its clients' needs. Georgescu said the agency failed to develop a "process of looking at the brand and letting the market dictate the optimum role for, and the allocation of resources to, various marketing disciplines." "Best Alone, Better Together," PROMO, (June. 1991): 7.

DDB Needham's Mike White: "In the 1980s integration was merely a concept that people talked about but didn't practice at any level . . . and agencies didn't have the ability to deliver on it, clients didn't have people trained in it, and most clients had structures that actually fought against it." Clients and potential clients, however, soon learned there was no reason for them to terminate the relationships they had built up over the years with their "other" agencies just so their ad agencies' new conglomerates would be more profitable. "Agencies have Poor Track Record, Says Lintas Executive," PROMO, (April, 1991): 7.

In the recent past, price promotion became the rule--not a role to serve in the overall promotion plan. Not surprisingly, brand loyalty is eroding, said Mary Whalen, Quaker Oats' group manager for product and development , asks: "Can we move beyond cash incentives to value-added programs? Yes, but we need an integrated approach where each element--be it advertising, promotion, direct mail or public relations--must be held accountable in the brand equity building program." "Name That Product!" 1991

Clark Hine, VP for advertising and marketing communications, Quaker Oats Co.: "We believe integrated marketing communications is the wave of the future. Why? Because singly, the elements just aren't as effective anymore."

"Name That Product!" 1991

Frank Hoag, vice chairman and CEO of Lintas: Marketing Communications: "Integration is coming; the question is how do we handle it, because it's not just extending an ad theme over different complements, it's coming up with a multi-discipline approach to suit our client's needs." "Name That Product!" 1991

Peter M. Senge, author of The Fifth Discipline: "functional divisions grow into fiefdoms, and what was once a convenienct division of labor mutates into the 'stovepipes' that all but cut off contact between functions. The result: analysis of the most important problems in a company, the complex issues that cross functional ines, becomes a perilous or nonexistent exercise." The Fifth Discipline, New York: Doubleday Currency, 1990, p. 24

Image splintering is a growing affliction that affects 90% of American companies. It's what happens when the advertising, direct marketing, sales literature and public-relations efforts of an organizaion end up confusing the end prospect with conflicting--and sometimes competiting--messages. Cynthia Hartwig, "Firms Should Show an Unsplintered Image," DM News (June 4, 1990): 17-18, 51.

Bruce Barton, the second "B" of Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne, from 1947:

You can cancel your advertising--if you mean cancelling the limited fraction of your advertising you originate and place. But you are going to have advertising whether you like it or not. The part you do no and cannot control will roll on in ever increasing volume. It is the advertising given you by politicans with axes to grind...by demagogues who may point you out as typical of all that is bad with big business...by newspapers that hope to build circulation by distorting your acts...by other other operators in the field of public opinion, some unfriendly and many from sources beyond your control." Quoted by Cynthia Hartwig, "Firms Should Show an Unsplintered Image," DM News (June 4, 1990): 17-18, 51.

Problems with integration

Editorial in Media (Asia's Media & Marketing Newspaper--no date) "We suspect that integrated communication exists only at the stage of the initial business presentation. After that, selfish internecine bickering comes into play. The advertising, DM and PR arms gleefully get the knives out and cut each other's throats."

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